0An intrinsic semiconductor has some holes in it at room temperature What causes creates these holes?
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Answer . Main causes of exhaust holes are created to acidic chemicals generated by the working diesel or gas engine on combustion of the air/fuel mixture such as sulphur dioxide & carbon monoxide, and water vapour. The latter condenses from steam back into water along the length of the exhaust t…ube. The acidic properties with water 'eat' or oxidise on the steel exhaust eventually leading to pin hole rusting. One answer is to use stainless steel instead of ordinary steel which gives a longer life expectancy, although more expensive. (MORE)
The mobility of electrons is always greater than holes. Only the number of electrons and holes would be same in an intrinsic semiconductor.
As the cheese ferment the bacteria consumes the sugar and produce gas wich in turn creates small bubbles in the cheese.
The answer is SUPER SUPER SUPER INCREDIBLY HOT. However, unlike any other hot object, it cannot glow, because the light emitted is immediately pulled back in through its incredibly large gravitational pull. The reason it is so hot is because it sucks so much energy into it that it can be nothing but… really hot. Imagine if a black hole sucked in a star. The star may be tens of millions of degrees kelvin, but it is being compressed. Therefore, the same amount of energy, in a smaller space increases energy concentration, therefore temperature. However, there are some factors that must be considered which may cool it slightly. Mainly is the two polar jets running along its axis. These are made of particles travelling at near the speed of light, and x-rays. As far as I know (please do correct me if there is), there are no explanations for this, but it must undoubtedly have the effect of cooling the black hole, as the energy emitted is quite large. However, this does not mean it is cool; the amounts of energy emitted are mini in comparison to how much is already there. Timothy Leadbetter, Age 16 So hot you wont be able to stand on it with out roastig. (MORE)
a. attracted to the negative terminal of the voltage source. as an electrons leave its orbit it leave a hole which is promptly filled by another electron. so as electron flow one way the holes flow the opposite direction. in electronics current flow from positive charge to a less positive charge cl…assified as a "hole". Although it doesn't really *exist, it is thought to have the same charge as an electron but opposite polarity. (MORE)
When an electron is displaced in a semiconductor, the hole that isleft behind is called an electron hole. Energy can still beconducted because other electrons can and do jump to the space leftby a displaced electron.
A hole in your block comes from massive mechanical failure. Mostly a broke rod or crank. If you have a hole in your block, you need a new motor.
smoking can causde a hole in your colon. how can smoking cause a hole in your colon
Aluminum foil gets holes in it because it is extremely thin.Aluminum foil is not supposed to be able to last forever.
The temperature of a black hole is determined by the 'black bodyradiation temperature' of the radiation which comes from it. (e.g.,If something is hot enough to give off bright blue light, it ishotter than something that is merely a dim red hot.) For black holes the mass of our Sun, the radiation co…ming from itis so weak and so cool that the temperature is only oneten-millionth of a degree above absolute zero. This is colder thanscientists could make things on Earth up until just a few years ago(and the invention of of a way to get things that cold won theNobel prize this year). Some black holes are thought to weigh abillion times as much as the Sun, and they would be a billion timescolder, far colder than what scientists have achieved on Earth. However, even though these things are very cold, they can besurrounded by extremely hot material. As they pull gas and starsdown into their gravity wells, the material rubs against itself ata good fraction of the speed of light. This heats it up to hundredsof millions of degrees. The radiation from this hot, infallingmaterial is what high-energy astronomers study. (MORE)
a black hole is caused by a supernova, then the black hole forms. the matter sucked in and gets shot through a worm hole. after the wormhole the matter gets shot out a white hole. the wormhole is impossible to see, for witch this hard to belive for it goes from one end of the galixy to the other end… hope i helped! (MORE)
an a-hole is a thing at the back of u that says " im about to blow!". In otherwords, most people put there penis up it. This is called 'Humping"
Briefly: CFCs and similar man-made gases break down theozone in the stratosphere allowing in harmful ultravioletradiation. The ozone hole happens mostly in Antarctica where fourmonths of winter darkness create ideal conditions for thedestruction. Ozone is a protective layer in the upper atmosphe…re. It is formed,when oxygen molecules absorb short wavelength ultra violetradiations from the sun. Ozone is mostly destroyed by the freeradicals in the atmosphere. When compounds like CFCs(chlorofluorocarbons) are released, they are dissociated bysunlight into chloride radicals. These radicals attack ozone,thereby decreasing its concentration. This results in hole in theozone layer. The hole in the ozone layer happens because the ozone inthe stratosphere is destroyed by chlorine and bromine from halogenatoms. These atoms come from man-made halocarbon refrigerator gases( chlorofluorocarbons [CFCs], freons and halons )which are emitted at ground level but move up into the ozone layer.These gases all contain chlorine and bromine. Ozone (O3) is formed when ultraviolet (UV) light strikes an oxygenmolecule (O2), converting it into two oxygen ions (O). These oxygenions (O) combine with other oxygen molecules (O2) to form ozone(O3). Later, another oxygen ion (O) will combine with the ozonemolecule (O3) to form two oxygen molecules (O2). This is thenatural ozone-oxygen cycle of the earth. The ozone layer prevents the harmful ultraviolet B-waves (UV-B)from reaching the earth. Increased exposure to UV-B is thought tobe responsible for increases in skin cancer, eye cataracts anddamage to plants and plankton. Because of this the nations of theworld in 1989 adopted the Montreal Protocol which bans productionof CFCs, halons and other ozone-depleting chemicals. The ozone hole happens during the spring in Antarctica (Sept toDec). Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs) form during the all-darkwinter. When spring arrives and UV light appears again, crystals ofice and nitric acid in these clouds help to release the chlorineand bromine atoms from the halocarbon gases. These destroy theozone. (A single chlorine atom can continue destroying ozone for upto two years, reacting with up to 100,000 ozone molecules.) Another view: Natural issues: Because the concept of man made pollution doesn't cover all of whatwe see, another look at the issue is demanded. In the man inducedtheory, the depletion of ozone is due to release of man-madechemicals such as chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) compounds. Over time these heavier then air chemicals work their way up intothe upper stratosphere. CFC's break apart under UV radiationreleasing chlorine atoms that would destroy ozone. Assuming this man induced theory on the origin of the ozone hole iscorrect, the area most affected would be the mid-Latitude NorthernHemisphere where the industry and population centers in the U.S.,Canada, Europe, India, Asia, Russia, China and Japan exist. This isprecisely what is not happening! This area is where the leastaction occurs. Instead, we are observing a substantial annual ozone hole in onearea only, the Antarctic and then only during times of no sunlight(the polar winter). Once the sun returns, the hole disappearsquickly. A substantially smaller hole (NASA calls this the dimplebecause it is so small) is also known to occur over the world'ssecond cleanest area, the Arctic. A second issue exists. The sun often generates explosions thatproduce bursts of high-energy protons. These are called SolarProton Events. Ozone layer density on Earth can be dramaticallyaffected by SPE's, which can locally decrease ozone content in thestratosphere up to 5%. Some events that have caused serious dents in our levels of ozonelevels can be measured using Nitrate Spike Signatures. They show us large thinning of our ozone layer occurred prior tothe creation of CFC's in September of 1859 and in July 1892. Thirdly, There is growing evidence that ozone levels at the polesis directly connected to the strength of our magnetic fields. Theever weakening fields are believed to be assisting with the sizeand strength of the ozone hole. Projections for the hole, if tiedto magnetic levels of the planet, are for an increasing hole,despite the banning of CFC's. It is unfortunate that many confuse ozone depletion (which could bea man induced issue) with this natural event. Please see therelated link below for a peer reviewed explanation of the naturalevent we refer to as the hole in the ozone layer; Bad gases such as Carbon Dioxide and other fumes harm the Ozonelayer. CFC (A fluorocarbon with chlorine; formerly used as arefrigerant and as a propellant in aerosol cans) is also the mainproblem in which the ozone has become thinner. It has been bannedin 1966, but the effects are still slow. The ozone hole is a natural event that occurs when it is winter ata pole. UV-C is required to replace ozone that is decayed(naturally or otherwise), and in winter at a pole, it gets no UV-C,so the ozone decays to very low levels. It also heals up towardsspring, such that there is no ozone hole once UV-C from the Sunarrives. See " How did the ozone hole occur? " More information: The "hole" in the ozone layer is not a hole in any real sense ofthe word, but a thinning of the amount of ozone in the atmosphereover the Antarctic during the end of the winter. This hole has beennaturally occurring for centuries and is due, almost exclusively,to the lack of sunlight over this area during the long winter. Asmaller, but similar situation occurs over the Arctic during theend of it's winter months. NASA refers to this thinning area as thedimple due to the small size when compared to the Antarctic'ssituation. Solar activity is also a known issue for the amount ofozone in our atmosphere. The largest known thinning of that we knowof actually occurred in 1859 and is believed to have been caused bysolar activity. CFC's are also having some contributory affect onthe amount of thinning of the ozone. Ozone depletion was observed to increase as emissions ofhalo-carbons increased. Ozone is a protective layer in the upper atmosphere. It is formedwhen oxygen molecules absorb short wavelength ultra violetradiations from the sun. Ozone is mostly destroyed by free radicalsin the atmosphere. When compounds like CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) and otherhalocarbons are released, they are dissociated by sunlight intochloride radicals. These radicals attack ozone, thereby decreasingits concentration. This results in a thinning of the ozone layer,and in polar regions, a hole. The holes occur at the poles, and usually in Antarctica because ofthe extreme cold. During the winter polar stratospheric clouds formwhich are able to convert gases in the atmosphere into Cl(chlorine) and ClO (chlorine monoxide). When the sun arrives at theend of winter, that is the trigger to begin. This is why the holeis largest in spring. The ozone hole occurs once a year at each pole. The southern polarhole is larger than the northern polar hole due the fact that thesouthern pole is much colder than the northern pole. The size of the hole is what is of concernand is caused by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halogens from humanindustry. Ozone decays naturally with time. With the axial tilt that Earthhas, once each year (local winter) each pole stops receiving theUV-C that turns some oxygen into ozone. So the ozone startsdecaying, and a hole forms. The only ozone the pole gets at thistime, diffuses in from areas that are still receiving UV-C. So theozone would be exceedingly thin at this time. The presence of thepolar jet stream prevents the ozone at the poles (during localwinter) from being replenished as it is throughout the yearotherwise. Add contaminants to the mix, and the amount of ozone drasticallydecreases. Water vapor (natural and Man-sourced), chlorine (mostcommonly Man-sourced, carried by CFCs), and bromine (most commonlynatural, but likely some Man-sourced, carried for example in halon)all have shown abilities in depleting ozone. The concentration of ozone at any point is a balance of incidentUV-C from the Sun (both making and destroying ozone), UV-B from theSun (destroys ozone when absorbed), time, and compounds that canaccelerate the decay of ozone. The southern hole is larger because it is so much colder. It iscold enough to form something known as Polar Stratospheric Clouds(PSCs). These form a deposition site for the radicals in theatmosphere that are responsible for ozone depletion. These radicalscan be recycled after use so that one molecule of contaminant(chlorine) is responsible for the destruction of several thousandmolecules of ozone. (MORE)
A black hole doesn't cause anything. It is a gravity trap - a place where gravity has gotten so strong nothing can escape (excluding Hawking radiation at the event horizon.) What happens is a star (or stars) is (are) so heavy after burning much of their hydrogen into helium that the star(s) start to… collapse in on itself. If there is a certain amount of mass at a certain distance (critical mass) then even light can't escape the gravitational pull and now it is a black hole. Because energy can't just disappear and Hawking radiation exists, after enough time a black hole can expend itself - burned so much matter to energy that it 'dies' - that is it expends the last of it's energy in a humongous burst of radiation - an explosion of light if you will and all that's left are those echoes of it's death. (MORE)
silicon is intrinsic semiconductor until we add some impurities in it. the impurities are either of group 3 called acceptors which make p type or of group 5 called donors which make n type semiconductor.
water gets into the cracks and over time the water will expand. at winter the water will get into the crack n freeze there for the how i split also as heavy goods vehicle hit the road over time it will damage the road
it's a book. they've also made a movie, which (crazy i know!) went along with the book perfectly. anyways it's really good.
the collapse of stars that are about 4 times bigger than the sun. it collapses so greatly that nothing in the universe can stop it, and it becomes a black hole.
Holes is a novel about Stanley Yelnats, a good kid who is in the wrong place at the wrong time. He is sent to Camp Greenlake, a prison camp where boys are forced to dig holes. The book is about his time there.
Doping with Group III elements, which are missing the fourth valence electron, creates "broken bonds" (holes) in the silicon lattice that are free to move. The result is an electrically conductive p-type semiconductor.
A semiconductor material forms a crystal structure where all the valence electrons "participate" in forming the lattice. There are neither "extra" nor "missing" electrons in the structure. If we dope the semiconductor with a "P-type" material, this sets the stage for the creation of a "hole" in that… matrix. The P-type material will have one less valence electron than our semiconductor material. And when that P-type atom becomes part of the crystal matrix, it lacks that one electron to make the matrix "complete" or "uniform" as regards the electrons. That creates the hole in the matrix.. When that P-type material is formed up against N-type material (which has an "extra" electron in its matrix), that extra electron will leave the N-type material and migrate to the P-type material to fill that hole. This sets up a condition where charges have shifted, and it creates a difference of potential (voltage) across the junction (owing to the shift of the electrons). (MORE)
By leaving electrons from their orbit.. By use of p-type dopants, elements with 3 valence electrons. . boron . aluminum . gallium . indium
It depends, the radiation that comes off of Black Holes weren't observed in a way we can measure. However, there were different measurements for the total kinetic energy being produced. An example: The higher you go up into the atmosphere the colder it gets, but the temperature increases due to the… higher kinetic energy. (MORE)
The major cause of the ozone hole is: . The indiscriminate use of CFCs by the human race which contain chlorine and fluorine responsible for the maximum amount of ozone depletion. The extreme cold of Antarctica provides ideal conditions for the destruction. This is why the biggest hole is usua…lly over Antarctica. (MORE)
The exterior of the Colosseum is covered with holes. The truth about their origin is that the blocks used for the exterior of the building were held together by iron clamps. These iron clamps were taken out in later times (Decline of Rome) and reused for other purposes.
intrinsic semiconductor : semiconductors which are in its extremely pure form are known as intrinsic semiconductor example : silicon, germanium extrinsic semiconductor : when a small amount of doping is added to intrinsic semiconductor it becomes extrinsic semiconductor
Adhiraj: The temperature of a black hole is determined by the 'black body radiation temperature' of the radiation which comes from it. (e.g., If something is hot enough to give off bright blue light, it is hotter than something that is merely a dim red hot.) For black holes the mass of our Sun, the …radiation coming from it is so weak and so cool that the temperature is only one ten-millionth of a degree above absolute zero. This is colder than scientists could make things on Earth up until just a few years ago (and the invention of of a way to get things that cold won the Nobel prize this year). Some black holes are thought to weigh a billion times as much as the Sun, and they would be a billion times colder, far colder than what scientists have achieved on Earth. However, even though these things are very cold, they can be surrounded by extremely hot material. As they pull gas and stars down into their gravity wells, the material rubs against itself at a good fraction of the speed of light. This heats it up to hundreds of millions of degrees. The radiation from this hot, infalling material is what high-energy astronomers study. (MORE)
hey...before knowing how a black hole forms.....u must know the life cycle of a star....when death of stars occurs then they become black hole.....their gravitational pull is really high....they cannot be seen....but scientists see them....as light passing through them cannot escape because of gravi…tational pull..... (MORE)
As an electron leaves its orbit, the hole is promptly filled by another electron. So as electrons flow one way, the holes "flow" in the opposite direction. While classified as a "hole", it doesn't really exist. It is considered to have the same charge as an electron but with opposite polarity.
Gravity. When a star of 3+ solar masses collapses in on itself, gravity continues to make its matter denser and denser.
We have never actually been able to stick a thermometer in one so this questing is a Little hard to answer with a any reliable reply.
A piece of intrinsic (pure) silicon at room temperature has, at any instant, a number of conduction-band (free) electrons bthat are unattached to any atom and are essentially drifting randomly throughout the material. Also, and equal number of holes are created in the valence band when these electro…ns jump into the conductance band. (MORE)
...It is due to the fact that at higher temperatures, the energy in the semiconductor is greater than Eg by a considerable amount, meaning that the conduction band is more full. At these high temperatures, the dopants' role on electron-hole pairs is negligible.
The temperature of a black hole is measured from the level of radiation coming from that black hole. The more radiation is given off by the black hole, the hotter it will be. If the black hole was the mass of our sun, the radiation given off by the black hole would only amount to about one ten-mill…ionth of a degree above absolute zero (0K or -273.15Â°C). The more a black hole weighs, the less radiation it emits and the colder it will be. If a black hole weighed a billion times the mass of our sun, it would be a billion times colder. Source: Ask an Astrophysicist (MORE)
The temperature of a black hole is about one ten-millionth of a degree above absolute zero. Absolute zero is about -459.67 Fahrenheit.
It causes harmful activities like skin cancer, cataracts. Mainlychildren are worst affected. It is also harmful for eyes.
There are many rooms in a hobbit hole. They call them smails and there are rooms for clothes and food. They include normal household rooms, with bathrooms, and nice rounded ceilings. No specific number is mentioned. .
The ozone hole is caused by the continues usage of ODS whichcontain CFCs. These CFCs react with ozone and deplete it.
no!!!!! holes in semiconductor have no mass! the conventional way to represent holes as positively charged so there should be a question in our mind that they should have some mass,as proton, the only positively charged particle have mass,but it hasn't.actually the electrons are carrying charge in …everywhere,the opposite direction of flow of current considered as the direction of conventional current, In the semiconductor also only electron carry charges,so the excessiveness of electron defined a semiconductor as n-type,or donor type(due to doping,i.e.,mixing some impurities with the semiconductor and make the semiconductor to make covalent bond with that element).and where the semiconductor is doped with some element of having only three electrons at the valence cell,the covalent bond have a shortage of electrons to complete the total covalent bond,so the semiconductor become available to add another electron to compete the covalent bond.and hence they are called p-type or acceptor type.so hole is nothing but a convention to denote this lack of electron,i.e.,lack of negative charge and it seems like the semiconductor have a positive charge that balance the electron.so the hole must not have any mass. electron have a mass-1.6*10^-19 kg (MORE)
Pretty much. Ecstasy is so powerful that each pill renders little parts of your brain unusable.
When the temperature increases, more and more electrons become free to move there by increasing the energy in effect.
at low temperature its forbidden gap is very large so it act as a insulater.
Those semi conductors in which impurities are missing are known as intrinsic semiconductors. The electrical conductivity of the semiconductor depends upon the total no of electrons shifted to the conduction band from the valence band. This phenomenon is called as intrinsic conductivity.
When a force (EMF) is put on a copper wire the electrons travel in a direction the electron leaves a hole and the holes travel in the other direction
Going to Camp Green Lake there were more challenges than ever before and having Zero as a friend made him more confident. He was sick of people telling him he was a wimp so he gradually got tougher by standing up to the other boys, like when he fought ZigZag because he kept on annoying Stanley!
Probably, there weren't so many sinkholes around in the 60s and 70s now they're everywhere. Coincidence though apparently.
Free electrons and holes are the charge carriers -not only in intrinsic semiconductors (these are the purest form of semiconductors-typically as pure as can be made available with the present technology) but also in extrinsic semiconductors( doped semiconductors ). In intrinsic semiconducto…rs, electron-hole pairs are created due to the natural processes like- . absorption of heat energy from the surroundings . absorption of energy from photons. this absorbed energy results in breakdown ofcovalant bonds in intrinsic semiconductors as a result of which electron-hole pairs are created. It is this electron hole pair which is responsible for carrying the current through the intrinsic semiconductor when a potential difference is applied across it. In extrinsic semiconductor the case is slightly different- here, we have-majority charge carriers and minority charge carriers. in an n-type semiconductor- majority charge carriers are the electrons contributed by the pentavalent impurities while the minority charge carriers are the holes which are generated as electron-hole pairs due to natural processes discussed above. in p-type semiconductor- majority charge carriers are the holes contributed by trivalent impurities whereas the minority charge carriers are the electrons which are generated as electron-hole pairs due to natural processes discussed above. these are the majority charge carriers which contribute heavily in the flow of current through the extrinsic semiconductors than the minority charge carriers. I suggest you to please go through mass action law and law of electrical neutrality of semiconductors for better understanding. (MORE)
at higher values of temperature the intrinsic carrier concentration become comparable to or greater than doping concentration in extrinsic semiconductors. thus majority and minority carrier concentration increases with increase in temperature and it behaves like intrinsic semiconductor.
Probably not. Or let's just say that wormholes are veryspeculative. You'll encounter them more in science fiction stories(where it may suit a particular story plot!) than in seriousscience.
Semiconductor in pure form (i.e. without doping) is called intrinsic or i-type semiconductor. The no of charge carrier in this case is determined by the materials itself only and not by the impurities. In an intrinsic semiconductor number of excited free electron is equal to the number of holes.