How tall is a Nimitz class aircraft carrier?

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In general from the top of the radar tower to the keel (spine of the ship) 24 stories or roughly 240 feet.


The document "INTERIM TECHNICAL GUIDANCE (ITG) - FACILITIES HOMEPORTING CRITERIA FOR NIMITZ CLASS AIRCRAFT CARRIERS" states "e. Height - use the lightly loaded height of 215 ft above the waterline."
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What were the names of the aircraft carriers before the USS Essex CV 9 and what are the names of the other Essex class carriers of World War 2?

Answer . The carriers that preceeded the Essex were the Langley, Lexington, Saratoga, Ranger, Yorktown, Enterprise, Wasp and Hornet. There were 24 Essex class carriers. Hull number ten was the Yorktown, followed by Intrepid, Hornet, Franklin, Ticonderoga, Randolph, Lexington, Bunker Hill, Wasp, Hancock, Bennington, Boxer, Cowpens,Bon Homme Richard, Leyte, Keasarge, Orisikany, Antietam, Princeton, Tarawa, Valley Forge and hull number 47, the Phillipene Sea. A technical point: the Tarawa, Princeton and the Phillipene Sea wer not commissioned before WWII ended but they are "Essex" class and their hulls were laid down before V-J Day. Hulls 9-21, 31-37, 40, 45, and 47 are all Essex Class. Some are called Ticonderoga class, but they are only stretched Essex Class Carriers.

Why aren't the new Royal Navy aircraft carriers nuclear powered and if they cost as much as Nimitz class carriers why are they not equally as big?

God knows, i doesn't make any sense, the two new CLV future carriers of the royal navy individually cost more than a typical nimitz class supercarrier, and yet they have no nuclear power and carry half as many planes. Maybe things are just more expensive to build in the U.K. Idea!!, scrap the CLV and buy two nimitz class carriers new or old. Also Designing and building new aircraft carriers is expensive. That's why few countries build them. The design costs are spread among two UK carriers but among many Nimitz class carriers making the UK ones appear more expensive. We could buy a couple of US carriers instead but then we would lose carrier building capabilities in our own shipyards. That's a strategically bad idea. In addition, the Government gets much of the money back anyway via taxes, both personal and corporate. The airwing may be a lot smaller, but would the RN have the money for 200 aircraft anyway? Or even need that many? Not to mention the additional pilots, crew numbers etc etc. The new carriers are not nuclear powered because we don't need them to be. With bases throughout the world fuel supply is not an issue. The expense is not justified. The existing carriers are conventionally powered and that's never been an problem. The only time it would matter is if the bases fall. In those circumstances, it would be a world war and likely go nuclear rendering the carriers pointless in any case. On an additional note, the Royal Navy has suffered in recent years from cutbacks in funding from the MoD. While the UK's new CLV carriers will be second in the world only to the US Nimitz class, the RN's funding shortages make the uneconomical cost of building these new carriers evenmore unfeasable. Also, since they cost such a significant amount of government money, why not shell out the extra money and make the carriers nuclear powered anyway? After all, the Royal Navy already has other nuclear powered vessels in its fleet. Also Comparing these new carriers with the Nimitz class of carrier is not a valid comparison. The Nimitz was laid down in 1968 and commissioned in 1975. Yes they have been upgraded to an extent, as new ones have been built, but because of the original design there are limitations to the extent of upgrading possible or practical. Comparing these two very different classes of carrier is like comparing a slingshot to a rifle. A more accurate comparison would be the class of carrier being developed and built at the moment, like ours, to eventually replace the Nimitz class, the first of which will enter service in 2015 to replace the Enterprise. The Gerald R. Ford class of carrier was estimated in the last report to cost $14 billion. Just over twice the last estimate for ours. As for the nuclear question: In addition to that which was written above about our not needing a nuclear powered surface fleet there is a great saving involved. The first of the Nimitz class will be replaced by the 2nd Gerald R. Ford class in 2025. At which point the Nimitz will be de-commissioned and is estimated to cost from $750 to $900 million to do so. This compares with an estimate of $53 million for a conventionally powered carrier. The value of air supremacy in a defensive or offensive role over land or at sea, for which these wings would contribute to all four roles cannot be over-emphasised, and I believe, despite the cost, represent good value for money. I believe the security these carriers could provide outweighs for example the comparible money being spent for the Olympics. For the first time in over half a century we may have new carriers that could afford to send an effective flight forward while leaving enough behind for defence, very unlike how our current class of carrier, along with Hermes operated in the Falklands conflict.

What is an aircraft carrier?

\n. \n It's a large ship! \n. \n. \nAn aircraft carrier is basically a large "barge". Or a large flat ship that can hold many different planes, and is long enough for a plane to take off and land on. These large aircraft carriers are usually located in the middle of the ocean, in a location where an airport or landing location on land is not accessible. Planes are able to land and take off from the deck of this ship. There is a cable that snags onto the plane as it is landing to keep the plane from skidding off the boat. \n. \nThere are several different types of Carriers. There are the VSTOL types, the British have a number of these, they are smaller than the US large carriers. The aircraft, Harriers, do vertical take offs and only require enough space to land on. The US has Heliocopter Assault (LHAs) that are designed to transport large groups of Marines from the ship to shore in attack waves. \n. \nAnd the biggest are the US Navy's Nimitz class carriers. Nuclear powered, they carry heliocopters, jets and prop planes. They are designed to extend the US presence into areas not readily available to aircraft from land based locations. The greatly increased range of most aircraft has greatly extended their range of operation. They allow rapid turn around of aircraft, increasing the number of missions that can be run.

How tall is a aircraft carrier?

The Nimitz class super carriers are enormous ships of the line inthe United States Navy. Her draft (from waterline to keel) is 37feet, and from waterline to the top of the superstructure is 215feet, for a total of 252 feet.

How fast is a navy aircraft carrier?

The actual limits of an Aircraft Carrier are classified. However; it can travel upwards of 30 knots. Truth be told, an Aircraft Carrier has enough power to shake itself apart. I was actually on an aircraft carrier with my handheld GPS. You wouldn't believe me if I told you how fast that thing can actually go. It is well over 35 knots. ~~~~~~~~~~~ Hey there guys...Try 85 knots or 92mph. Yes that big ship, that floating city, can go that fast. ==== The above poster is correct........ I just did the calculations for how fast the USS Regan got to Japan after the quake and came up with roughly 104mph so 85 - 92 knots is DEAD ON!

What are the uses of the aircraft carrier today?

WWII-Naval battles (Fleet actions); troop support; strategic strikes Vietnam War-Strategic strikes against North Vietnam & close air strikes for ground troops Today-Strikes against precision targets/strikes in support of ground troops

Did the Nazis ever have an aircraft carrier?

Germany did complete one aircraft carrier; the Graf Zepplin. But Germany lacked the expertise to build a "carrier plane" to operate from it.. The Graf Zeppelin was never completed because Admiral Raeder was replaced by Admiral Donitz who wanted only submarines. If Raeder had not been replaced, the Graf Zeppelin would have used carrier-modified Me109 fighters and Ju87 dive bombers. After the war, the submarine was still the nemesis of the only German aircraft carrier. Instead of finishing the ship for their navy, the Soviet Union used it only to transport captured submarine hulls to Russia so they could be copied.

Why was the aircraft carrier built?

Aircraft carriers were built because once the airplane was used as a military weapon, they knew that whoever controlled the skies, controlled the battle. Since our enemies were too far away for us to fly directly from the continental US, they knew that they had to get the planes there somehow. Early on they had seaplanes that were launched from a ramp on a ship. The sea plane had to land in the water and taxi alongside the ship and be hoisted aboard with a crane. This was only safe in calm seas. Knowing that they would be better off with a floating airport, they built carriers.

How many people on an aircraft carrier?

The current generation USS Nimitz supercarriers (the largest ever built) require a crew of about 3200 sailors, and an aircrew of about 2500. The next-generation Ford-class supercarriers reduce this number through automation by almost 20%, to roughly 4700 crew total. For comparison, the prototypical WW2 aircraft carrier, the USS Essex class, had a total crew of 2600.

How will Britain's new Queen Elizabeth class aircraft carriers compare to the US nimitz class?

The new British Carriers are shorter range(unless refuled at sea) as not nuclear powered, carry less aircraft so definitely second rate on those statistics. But..They are being designed to support the F35B from the start, and have a lower radar profile plus are cheaper to run. Few countries could stand up to an attack by either carrier class anyway. The USA is building a new class, the Gerald R. Ford class which although VERY costly, should be superior to both the nimitz class and the British Carriers. So in these credit crunch times which is better? the cheaper to run one or the higher capability but more expensive model?

Fuel consumption Nimitz aircraft carrier?

A Nimitz class CVN uses approximately the weight of a paper clip worth of U235 per day at an average underway power. I cannot disclose the weight of U235 upon initial fuel load due to it being classified, but It is not near as much as one would expect for the ship to run for 20-25 yrs.

Weight of an aircraft carrier?

Not all aircraft carriers weigh the same amount. The Nimitz-classaircraft carriers used by the United States weigh 66,000 poundseach.

How many classes of American aircraft carriers were there?

During WW2, there were many classes. The primary early classes were the YORKTOWN class, containing the USS Enterprise, USS Yorktown, and the USS Hornet. The Saratoga and Lexington were the only two carriers of their class, and they were the largest US carriers of the war, until the ESSEX class came on line. Then there were the Light Carriers classes, and the Escort Carrier classes. Totally more than 50 aircraft carriers during WW2.

What are the risks of aircrafts embarked on aircraft carriers?

From WWII to Vietnam, they were very dangerous. In Vietnam, the USS Enterprise, USS Oriskany, and USS Forrestall, all were involved with explosions and fires destroying men and jet aircraft. Lessons LEARNED from those incidents have made aircraft carriers safer for 21st century US sailors.

How much does it cost to run the nimitz class aircraft carrier?

160 million per year just for the personnel. add aircraft fuel and maintenance parts, and you're looking at closer to $400 million per year. add the cost of the carrier ($4.5 billion) and divide it over its lifetime (about 40 years) and you're looking at about $530,000,000 per year which is close to $1,450,000 per day. Carriers launch on average 18 times (with 18 recoveries) per day including time in port and time in shipyads. That means each carrier launch costs $80,600.

What aircrafts are on the aircraft carriers?

Both American and Japanese carriers had three types of airplanes: fighters, dive bombers, and torpedo bombers. Fighters were to provide protection for the carriers and other ships of the friendly fleet, and to shoot down enemy airplanes. Fighters would escort the bombers when they went to attack the enemy fleet, to duel with the enemy's fighters, which would be trying to protect the enemy fleet. Naval fighter were single seat, single engine aircraft. The Japanese fighter plane throughout the war was the Mitsubishi A6-M "Zero". US carriers at first had the Grunman F4F Wildcat, and later the Grunman F6F Hellcat. The Vought F4U Corsair was also produced for carriers but proved to be too heavy, so was flown mostly by Marine aviation units operating from land bases. The Corsair was the fastest piston engine (that is, non-jet) airplane of the war. Dive bombing was pioneered by the US Navy, but quickly copied by the Japanese Navy and the German Air Force. They usually carried one five hundred pound bomb slung beneath the belly of the plane. They would come over the enemy ships at several thousand feet and nose over into a steep dive, aiming the airplane at the enemy ship below. Somewhere between one and two thousand feet they would release the bomb and pull out of their dive. Dive bombers had two crewmen - a pilot, and a tail gunner who sat behind the pilot facing backward, with machine guns to fight off enemy airplanes trying to come in on their tail and shoot them down. The Japanese had the "Val" dive bomber. The US dive bomber was the Douglas SBD Dauntless. This was the airplane which sank four Japanese carriers at Midway. Torpedo bombers were the biggest carrier aircraft. They were still single engine prop aircraft, like the others, but had to have a massive, powerful engine. They carried three men, pilot, rear gunner and radio operator. They carried a single torpedo slung externally below the plane. These torpedoes weighed just over one ton. These bombers were considered to be the worst menace to surface ships. The torpedoes they carried were the same type fired by submarines, and by destroyers on the surface. Since they had a large warhead and struck below the waterline the torpedoes could sink ships much more readily than dive bombers. It was Japanese torpedo bombers that caused most of the damage to US Navy ships at Pearl Harbor. Torpedo bombers had to come in "low and slow", less than one hundred feet above the water, and fly straight at the enemy ship, so the torpedo would run true. Meanwhile the enemy ship would be twisting and turning in wild evasive action and every anti-aircraft gun that could be brought to bear would be blazing away at the incoming torpedo bomber. At Midway, one reason the dive bombers were so successful is that the US torpedo bombers reached the Japanese fleet a few minutes before the dive bombers and attacked immediately, without waiting to coordinate the attack with the dive bombers. Every single US torpedo bomber was shot down, and they scored no hits at all on the Japanese ships. But, they did pull all the Japanese fighter planes down "on the deck" to shoot at them, so the dive bombers found no enemy fighter planes above the enemy fleet when they arrived. The Japanese had the "Kate" torpedo bomber. The US had the TBD Devastator at the start of the war, which was agonizingly slow. It was these Devastators which were slaughtered at Midway. Then the new TBD Avenger reached the fleet and became the US torpedo bomber. This was the type of aircraft flown by the first president Bush in the war.

What is a super structure on an aircraft carrier?

The steel cabins and buildings that are sitting on the top side. They are the ONLY structures sitting over the flat deck of the carrier. Translation: If you remove the super-structure(s), the carrier would be completely flat on top (all airstrip).

What is the newest aircraft carrier?

NEWPORT NEWS, Va. (NNS) -- Advance construction started on the nation's newest aircraft carrier Feb. 25 with a "first cut of steel" ceremony at Northrop Grumman Shipbuilding Newport News, Va. The steel plate cut will be used in the construction of the carrier, which has yet to be named, but will be designated CVN 79. The carrier represents the second in a new class of ships designed to replace Enterprise and Nimitz-class carriers and save more than $5 billion in total ownership costs during its planned 50-year service life when compared to Nimitz-class carriers. "Today we mark the beginning of the advance construction of CVN 79, second of the Gerald R. Ford-class of aircraft carriers," said Rear Adm. Michael McMahon, Program Executive Officer (PEO) for Aircraft Carriers. "It's an important step in continuing carrier construction using advanced technologies and efficiencies to reduce both ownership and procurement cost in this new class of carriers." Ford-class aircraft carriers, while retaining the same hull form as the Nimitz class, contain several advanced technology systems including Electromagnetic Aircraft Launching Systems, advanced arresting gear, dual band radar, a redesigned smaller island and a new propulsion plant. The first ship in the class, Gerald R. Ford (CVN 78), is also under construction at Northrop Grumman Shipbuilding-Newport News and is scheduled to be delivered to the fleet in September 2015. The PEO for Aircraft Carriers, an affiliated PEO of Naval Sea Systems Command, focuses on the design, construction, system integration, delivery and life-cycle support of all aircraft carriers. For more news from Naval Sea Systems Command, visit

How quick can an aircraft carrier launch aircraft?

The answer for todays carriers would be different. For WWII, there were no catapults to assist in slinging planes into the air. They had to get airborne under their own power. It was essential that the carrier be heading into the wind at top speed before launching aircraft, as this added about 30 mph to the relative speed of the aircraft. So, if all planes were fully fueled and armed and the pilots standing by, the carrier heading into the wind, an aircraft could be launched every twenty to thirty seconds. Not all planes would fit on the flight deck at one time. Some would be on the deck below, the hanger deck, and brought up on large platform elevators when there was room. US carriers generally had four of these elevators, which were a part of the flight deck when raised. US carriers generally kept some fighter planes aloft over head as Combat Air Patrol during daylight, and kept another flight on standby on the flight deck with pilots in the cockpits. WWII carriers were straight deck carriers. They could not launch airplanes and also land airplanes at the same time. So if flight operations were underway - and they almost always were, with the CAP overhead, then the deck could not be crammed full of planes at the ready because this would make it impossible for the CAP to be recovered. When a major attack was being readied and launched, then the carrier tried to launch aircraft as rapidly as possible, so they would be able to attack in a large number at the same time after flying to the target. It took the Japanese abut an hour to launch the first wave of attack aircraft for the Pearl Harbor attack. Some had to circle around, finding the others of their formations, until all were airborne, then they set off together for Oahu. After about another 30-45 minutes the Japanese were able to being launching the second wave, having brought up those aircraft by elevator from the hanger deck. They were not able to launch all at once because of the limitations of space on the flight decks.

Can an A-10 land on an aircraft carrier?

Maybe, if it was equipped with a tailhook to catch the arresting gear on the flight deck. Without a tailhook, nobody is going to be landing on an aircraft carrier except for helicopters. Also, an A-10 might be too heavy to TAKE OFF from an aircraft carrier.

Why are aircraft carriers important to the war?

In the years between WW1 and WW2 military Aircraft became better in every measurable way, this culminated in them being able to carry thousands of tons of bombs or torpedoes. Warships in WW2 had to deliver their weapons fire from a gun barrel or a torpedo launched off a ship which meant getting to within about 10-25 kilometers of the enemy depending on the type of ship and most front line ships moved 27-34 knots maximum speed. Aircraft moved 5-10 times that speed allowing them to launch from hundreds of kilometers away and return to their base in a relatively short time only risking 3-5 ton Aircraft and not a massive ship. They out ranged their opponents completely while striking within the same weight class compared to firepower. Gaining air supremacy was especially difficult over the vast Pacific Ocean where real estate to build an airfield that was in range of an enemy was in short supply and in high demand for both the states and Japan so the Aircraft Carrier was essential. It provided an Ocean Airfield wherever one was needed. In the Atlantic they did the same thing but for the most part instead of aiming to sink an enemy fleet Carriers mostly British defended their Merchant Fleet from U-Boats. They also fought against the Italian Fleet in the Mediterranean. Now days 10 are part of the US fleet and at 100k tons each they are 3 times larger than the Essex class of WW2 and launch advanced Fighter Jets not propeller fighters. They haven't fought any huge prominent Naval Battles since the clashes between the fleets of the US and Japan. They mostly bomb targets and provide fighter cover for invasions and interventions against nations whose entire yearly military spending probably costs less than just one of these new Supercarriers. There are other smaller Carriers in the World but now in 2013 all combined they weigh about half the weight of the 10 Ship US Carrier Fleet sans the 9 smaller VTOL Jet carrying Assault Ships. The menial policing tasks of small wars keep them occupied until the next big war that hopefully never comes.

What aircraft carriers were at the battle of peleliu?

At the time of the Peleliu operation, Task Force 38 was comprised of 15 carriers divided into four Task Groups. Task Group 38.1 consisted of Hornet (CV-12), Wasp (CV-18), Belleau Wood (CVL-24), and Cowpens (CVL-25); Task Group 38.2 consisted of Intrepid (CV-11), Bunker Hill (CV-17), Cabot (CVL-28), and Independence (CVL-22); Task Group 38.3 consisted of Essex (CV-9), Lexington (CV-16), Princeton (CVL-23), and Langley (CVL-27); Task Group 38.4 consisted of Enterprise (CV-6), Franklin (CV-13), and San Jacinto (CVL-30).

What will replace the Nimitz class carriers?

The Gerald R. Ford-class carriers are currently in development as the replacement for the current Nimitz-class carriers; however, given their price tag and the current budget situation, there's a very good chance that Congress and DoD will opt to keep upgrading the Nimitz-class vessels rather than invest in a totally new ship design, at least for another few years.

What country has the most aircraft carriers?

the good ol USA. they have 67 aircraft carriers and 11 of them are in service right now. no other country even comes close. there's just a couple countries that have like 30 or 40 with only 1 or 2 in service and all the other countries either have 0 or only 1-5 total

What does cvn mean on aircraft carriers?

CV = Carrier Vessel. CV was originally used for normal large Carriers while CVL was used for Light Carriers that embarked a smaller Airwing than large Carriers and CVE was used for Escort Carriers which were to slow to keep up with the fleet and used for auxiliary duty like convoy escorts, air support and aircraft transport. Later after Nuclear power became common they added a new letter, N. N = Nuclear. CVN, Carrier Vessel Nuclear.

Is the USS Enterprise a Nimitz-class aircraft carrier?

She is literally one-of-a-kind. In 1958, they planned to make six nuclear-powered carriers and call them the Enterprise class carriers, but they cost too much so they only made the one named USS Enterprise. Nimitz class carriers were built later. Although the Nimitz class carriers are loosely based on the USS Enterprise, the USS Enterprise is not in the Nimitz class and is quite different. So, no. The USS Enterprise is not a Nimitz-Class aircraft carrier.

How much does a Nimitz class aircraft carrier weigh?

The USS George H.W. Bush (CVN-77) , the tenth and lastNimitz-class carrier to be built, displaces approximately 102,000long tons (114,000 short tons). Right, but the question wasn't what thedisplacement is. The question was, how much does it WEIGH?Displacement is simply how much water the ship displaces whenfloating. Water isn't as dense as steel, so the ship's actual dryweight on land will be different than the water it pushes out ofthe way. What that weight is for a Nimitz class ship doesn't seemto be available on search. Perhaps it is classified information.Therefore, the question remains unanswered.

What is the US aircraft carrier in the works?

The PCU Gerald R. Ford (CVN-78) is currently under construction as the lead ship of a new class of Carrier, designed to replace the Nimitz-class fleet at some point as the older ships start winding down their tours of service. Her keel laid down in 2009, she is expected to be commissioned for active service in 2015. The Ford-class carriers will benefit from technology designed to lower life-cycle operating costs, as well as manpower requirements.

How many aircrafts on a carrier?

On WWII US fleet carriers usually around 80, on Japanese carriers a few less, 70 or so, and on British carriers still less. The US operated more carriers than any other nation, and actually had about three types of carriers. The largest, front line type were the fleet carriers (CVs). There were also smaller "light" carriers (CVLs), and there were "Jeep" carriers, or "baby flattops", formally called "escort carriers" (CVEs). Escort carriers were made by converting the design for a WWII type of cargo ship, the Liberty ship, by giving it a flat carrier deck. These could carry only about 20 aircraft, and were designed and used to escort convoys of merchant ships, to help provide protection against enemy submarines which might attack the vital supply convoys. The escort carriers were developed because in the middle of the Atlantic there was an area where land-based planes, even of the longest range, could not reach flying either from America or England. Fleet carriers were needed to fight the enemy navies, mostly in the Pacific, and could not be spared for escorting supply convoys, so the escort carrier was created. WWII US and Japanese carriers had three types of airplanes: fighters, dive bombers, and torpedo bombers. In the US Navy these planes, their pilots, and mechanics, armorers etc were not a part of the ships crew. Instead the US Navy had Carrier Air Groups, made up of all the aviation personnel and their planes. If a carrier got into a big battle and lost heavily from its airplanes, the US Navy could just put a fresh Carrier Air Group aboard and send the ship back out with no loss of fighting power. The Japanese airmen were a part of the ships crew, which made it harder for them to replace losses, and caused their carriers to lose fighting power after big battles. A US Carrier Air Group had four squadrons, each with 18 planes, plus a few spare aircraft, making the total of about 80 when a ship set out for the war with a fresh air group aboard. There was one squadron of fighter planes, one of torpedo planes, and two equipped with dive bombers, one called a dive bombing squadron and the second called a "scout bomber" squadron, whose planes were used to hunt for enemy ships, and usually to join in the attack just like the other dive bombers once the enemy was located.

What is the difference in classes of aircraft carriers?

Class designations denote their roles in the fleet. For example, during WWII, a CV was a regular Aircraft Carrier, a front line fleet combat vessel. CVE's were escort, or jeep (escort and resupply) carriers that followed the fleet, but were primarily in a support, rather than a fleet combat role, even though they started out as auxiliary vessels and were upgraded to combatants. CVE's were typically relegated to convoy escort duty, and also resupplied fleet carriers with supplies, pilots, and aircraft to replace those lost in combat. CVE's also provide close air support for amphibious landings, while the larger fleet carriers battled the main IJN capital ships in major engagements. CVE's were similar to CVL's (Light Carriers), though they were much slower, smaller, and had less armor than fleet carriers. Due to the vulnerability of their hulls and minimal magazine protection, CVE's were called "Combustible, Vulnerable, and Expendable" by their crews. CVL's were essentially converted Cruiser hulls, and though they had the speed to maintain pace with fleet carriers, in reality their narrow decks were unsuitable for aircraft operations. Due to this limitation, CVE's were actually a better ship.

Does Canada have aircraft carriers?

Canada has a few retired light aircraft carriers. A notable carrier that was used in Canada was the HMCS Warrior. This was in service from 1946 to 1948 and was scrapped in the year 1971.

Where are aircraft carriers?

There are aircraft carriers all over the world. America has about 16 of various types. Many other countries also have aircraft carriers.

What are some names of aircraft carriers?

The following are names of some aircraft carriers: Langley, Lake Champlain, Reprisal, Coral Sea, Forrestal, Saratoga, Ranger, Nimitz, Phillipine Sea, and Valley Forge.