Resistant cell that can survive harsh conditions?

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endospores
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How do bacteria survive harsh conditions?

They form an endospore. An endospore is a thick cell wall that helps protect them. Endospores enable bacteria to lie dormant for extended periods of time when the environment is unfavorable (such as extreme temperatures, radiation, extreme pH levels, extreme pressures and harmful chemical agents)

By forming this structure some bacteria can survive harsh condition?

They form an endospore. An endospore is a thick cell wall that helps protect them. Endospores enable bacteria to lie dormant for extended periods of time when the environment is unfavorable (such as extreme temperatures, radiation, extreme pH levels, extreme pressures and harmful chemical agents)

Why does not bacteria survive in harsh conditions?

There are a number of bacteria that DO survive in harsh environments be it pH or temperature extremes or an environment that is very salty. Bacteria that don't survive in harsh conditions usually lose cell wall integrity and break apart, or lose all their intercellular fluid and shrivel up.