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In Science
In one molecule of water there are 2 hydrogen atoms and 1 oxygen atom.
Drinking water contains naturally occurring minerals such as calcium, sodium and magnesium. The levels of these minerals can vary causing very slight differences in taste, odour and colour. Water is amazing! In fact, you can't live without it. Water's special molecular structure allows it to form bonds with any positively or negatively charged atom. Water is a universal solvent meaning it dissolves other substances and transports both good and bad molecules. So, what's in the water? A lot! Molecular Structure
Two hydrogen (H) atoms attach to one oxygen (O) atom to form a water molecule (H2O.) Each hydrogen atom forms a covalent bond with the oxygen atom--they share a pair of electrons. Oxygen has an extra pair of electrons that are not shared. The extra electrons are on the side away from the hydrogen atoms . This makes the oxygen side of a water molecule negative. The hydrogen side is positive. Water's polarity means it dissolves most everything--good and bad, positive and negative.Water as a Solid Water can be a solid like ice or snow. Frozen water is in an ordered molecular state. This means all atoms are bonded. There are no or few atoms free to bond with other atoms. This makes it difficult for the atoms within polluting substances bond with the atoms within water. Therefore, polluting substances are not dissolved by water when it's in a frozen or ordered molecular state. The next time you put an ice cube in a glass of soda, notice the soda doesn't "mix" with the solid ice cube. The water remains solid until temperature forces the water to change states. The ice melts. The soda mixes with water only after the ice, solid water, melts into a liquid state.Water as a Liquid Water can be a liquid like you would find in a flowing river, a calm lake, or even in a glass for drinking. Water as a liquid is in a semi-ordered molecular structure. This means some water molecules have atoms available to bond with the atoms of other substances. Water as a liquid can dissolve these substances. If the substances contain pollution, the result is a solution made up of pollution and water. Water as a liquid gives free transportation to pollution. Take a spoonful of baking soda and empty it onto the counter. It's confined to one place. But if you add that same spoonful to a glass of water and then pour it onto the counter, the baking soda gets transported all over the place. It may even run off the counter onto the floor where you definitely don't want it. Imagine it you added something worse than mere baking soda! Water as a Gas
Water can even be a gas which is the water vapor you can see when boiling water. Water vapor is in a random molecular structure. Water vapor is a gas diffused in the air. Its molecules are distributed randomly or "spread out." In this state, all of the water molecule atoms are available for bonding with other substances. However, like in its frozen state it does little bonding. Why? Because the molecules are distributed so randomly that there is less of a chance of water molecules and other substances finding each other. But they do sometimes bond. Sometimes the pollution is already in water and vapor merely transports it up to the clouds. Check out the water cycle section to see how water moves from land to air and back again.
Bonds, cohesion, adhesion, and dissolved oxygen Water's atomic structure is unique and simple. A water molecule is made up of just three parts: an oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms. This structure is unique because it produces electrochemical properties. The structure makes a water molecule have a positive side and a negative side. Water is actively attracted to other molecules. At the same time, other molecules are attracted to water molecules.
Universal solvent
Because water molecules have a positive side and a negative side, any atom with a positive or negative charge can bond with it. In fact, water is a universal solvent. This means water can combine with other chemicals to form a solution. Chemical nutrients can then be carried as a solution through runoff into surface water, or infiltrate ground water.
pH
The pH of water molecules is not basic (alkaline) or acidic. It is neutral until water dissolves other substances. Since water can bond with just about anything, you rarely get pure water, or the chemical state H2O, without other bonded molecules of something else. So water usually picks up other molecules, like carbon dioxide for example, as it travels through the water cycle. Any substance with as pH less than 7 is considered acidic. Rain has a pH of 5.6 which is considered "normal." However, sometimes rain is far more acidic. When rain has a lower pH than 5.6 it is called "acid rain." Water vapor as it reaches the clouds can come into any number of pollutants we put into the air such as carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen oxides (NO1-X). The water vapor attracts the positive hydrogen ions of these pollutive substances to form acid rain. The pollution comes from many sources including
Minerals, sediment, and additives So what ends up in the water, what bonds with water molecules, as water travels through the water cycle? Minerals, sediment, and additives are on the "what's in the water" list. Minerals
Water's unique structure allows it to create strong bonds. These bonds create density. Therefore, water can transport heavy minerals like salt, calcium, potassium, or zinc. They transport these minerals not only through rivers and over land, but through your body as well.

Sediment

Unfortunately, sediment can be transported as well. Sediment is usually in the form of dirt and it is not wanted in our waterways.

Additives

Additives used to purify drinking water, like chlorine, travel with water from a processing plant to your faucet. Sometimes other additives like fluoride are introduced into a communities drinking water for the purpose of reducing tooth decay.
Many prominent scientists are alarmed by the content of some drinking water and actively seek to change the processes involved. The practice of making water safe to drink actually involves adding large amounts of extremely poisonous chemicals to it. Key scientists are now providing evidence that long-term ingestion of small amounts of chemicals like these could be the cause of some major health problems. Here is a list of just a few of the chemicals routinely added to our water supply:
  • Liquified chlorine
  • Fluorosilicic acid
  • Aluminium sulphate
  • Calcium hydroxide
  • Sodium silicofluoride
Even if the water leaves the source in a relatively clean state, don't forget that your water travels through pipes, which may have been underground since Victorian times. It is almost impossible for the water not to become contaminated by something undesirable. Contaminants in Tap Water Tap water is treated with a large number of chemicals in order to kill bacteria and other microorganisms. In addition, it may contain other undesirable contaminants like toxic metal salts, hormones and pesticides, or it may become contaminated by chemicals or microbes within pipes (e.g. lead, bacteria, protozoa). Typical Tap Water Content:
  • Chlorine
  • Fluorine compounds
  • Trihalomethanes (THMs)
  • Salts of:
    • arsenic
    • radium
    • aluminium
    • copper
    • lead
    • mercury
    • cadmium
    • barium
  • Hormones
    • Nitrates
    • Pesticides

    Testing Your Own Water You can assess the quality of your water by testing for Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) with a TDS meter which reads the TDS instantly and gives a read-out in parts per million (ppm) TDS. Generally, water with a TDS of 500 ppm or more is regarded as unfit for consumption. Most tap water ranges from 150 to 420 ppm TDS. A Reverse Osmosis system typically produces water with a TDS of 90 - 95% of the incoming water.

    If you would like to purchase your own TDS meter (£15.00 + p&p £1.99), please contact us. Fluoride in water Another very important health hazard is fluoride, which is added by some water authorities in the UK, and is also present in many toothpastes and mouthwashes. Around 10% of the UK's water supply is fluoridated, despite a huge and ever-growing body of evidence that the science behind this mass medication programme is questionable to say the least.

    Fluoridation of water is banned in all other European countries. (see the Flouride Action Network - Statements from European Health Authorities). For still more information on the dangers of fluoride, visit these links
    • Thirty fluoride links from Dr Mercola's site (USA)
    • Fluoride Action Network (USA)
    • Finally, you may wish to review the Scientific Facts on the Biological Effects of Fluorides.
    Prominent researcher apologises for pushing fluoride Click HERE to read a news article about Dr. Hardy Limeback, Head of the Department of Preventative Dentistry for the University of Toronto and President of the Canadian Association for Dental Research. Dr. Limeback is Canada's leading fluoride authority and, until recently, the country's primary promoter of the controversial additive. As stated by UK health researcher and author, Phillip Day, fluoridation of the public water system is a case of mass medication without consent. End of Article
  • At Freshly Squeezed Water (FSW) we believe that good health and plenty of pure clean drinking water go hand in hand, and we're not alone in this belief. Below are listed a number of links within this website that discuss the issues surrounding water and our health in more detail which you may find of interest. Please note: We are currently reviewing all of our articles in order to bring you the most accurate and up to date information available. Please view this page again soon.


Water is made up of Hydrogen and Oxygen
1 molecule of pure water is composed of 2 hydrogen atoms and 1 oxygen atom. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_%28molecule%29 Other than pure water(commonly referred to as 'distilled water'), the *source* of a water sample will greatly affect what is likely to be present together with the water molecules. For example: * Salt Water [eg from oceans -- contains salt {obviously :-)}, plus many other trace elements(eg iodine)] * Fresh Water [eg from rivers -- contains elements washed out of rocks, ground pollutants from farming, effluent from industry] * Drinking Water [domestic tap water -- will contain additives for purification, flouridation,etc] * Mineral Water [bottled water -- similar to fresh river water but (hopefully) without pollutants] * Rain Water [may contain atmospheric pollutants] Pure (distilled) water will have the water molecules (H2O) in a balanced (but dynamic) equilibrium with individual positively charged Hydrogen ions, H(+), and with negatively charged Hydroxide ions, OH(-). A chemical reaction proceeds in both directions, at random, continuously. It can be represented by the following shorthand: 2 H(+ve) + OH(-ve) H2O H20 molecules are V-shaped, with each Oxygen atom bonded to two Hydrogen atoms, something like this: H / O \ H As with all compunds, water is present around us in different states: A group of many H20 molecules form a complicated interacting conglomeration in liquid water, where adjacent molecules are somewhat 'joined' to each other, in passing. Liquid water can be referred to as, H2O(l), where 'l' is for 'liquid'. When cooled sufficiently(0 Degrees Celsius), liquid water becomes solid - then known as "water ice" or just "ice", or also known as H20(s) with the 's' for 'solid'. The H20 molecules now have much less kinetic energy and are more fixedly joined to the adjacent molecules. On the other hand, heated water(100 Degrees Celsius) becomes gaseous - then known as "steam", or H20(g) with the 'g' standing for 'gas'. The molecules have high energy and and just bounce off each other constantly. Nice stuff :-)
oxygen,hydrogen and purifying chemicals most of the time chlorine .other chemicals like magnisium sulfide might be used
Water is made of molecules.
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